GUIs: Tiled Window Managers


Well that was a long break!  I’m going to give my blog another try and see if I can keep it going a bit better this time.  Sorry for that loooong intermission.  🙂

Being someone who believes in using technology to make life better, one area that’s always interested me is human/machine interaction.  It’s a topic called human factors.  Having read Jef Raskin’s book, The Humane Interface, I know that there are ideas that work, and ideas that just don’t.  He had some very interesting ideas, many of which have slowly been making their way into the software we use every day whether installed on our computers, or via the web.

In my own personal experience, I discovered quite some time ago that one size (or flavor) does not fit all when it comes to user interfaces.  One person might think that the latest Microsoft Windows 7 GUI advances are the best thing since sliced bread, while another might think they’re a cheap knock-off of the Mac OS.  Another might find both of those environments to be far too wasteful in terms of system resources and workflow efficiency.  And still another might feel that only the “one true OS” has the best GUI of all time.  Which OS that is, is an exercise left up to the reader.

My personal experiences have allowed me to try nearly all GUIs at one point or another for extended periods of time and there are definitely, sometimes subtle, differences.  I’ve used everything from the earliest GUIs on Apple hardware, to the latest in Linux land and all in between.  What I’ve personally discovered is that each GUI approach has its benefits and drawbacks to certain tasks.  Another discovery is that until we get some more interesting input devices, that GUIs are generally all limited to a few basic functions no matter how much eye candy and window dressing is applied.

Having used Linux almost exclusively for many years, I was largely exposed to the Gnome and KDE environments which both take aspects of the Windows and Mac OS desktops as well as inheriting some attributes from a few Unix desktops as well.  The paradigm is purely windows, icons, mouse and pointer (W.I.M.P.).  During this time I also tried out many other environments and found that for normal use I preferred Gnome for day to day use.  I also tried Enlightenment which is just amazing, but since it’s always in alpha, it’s not very stable for day to day use and had some problems with presenting some apps properly.  It also required a little more coding experience to customize than I had at the time.

About three or four years ago, I decided to give KDE a spin again, and spent about half a year with it.  I found that I loved their Konsole (terminal) app above all others.  But GUI-wise it was still about as clunky as Windows 9x-2000.  I breifly returned to Gnome with the default Metacity window manager, then I discovered the amazing Beryl, now merged with Compiz to become Compiz-Fusion and now renamed yet again to Compiz.  This environment was packed with eye candy galore, some of which was Mac inspired, but much of which was actually unique.  I used that consistently at work for about two years and a few months and I loved every minute of it.  Being able to easily and visually zoom in and out of my sixteen virtual desktops was about as close as things get to Jef Raskin’s zooming user interface.  (Tuft’s University’s VUE mind mapping application also has a pretty decent zoom as well)

But, as usual, I got the itch to try something different and last Winter, I found a blog post at about how your desktop should not be a destination.  That is, your screen should never be focused on your desktop since that means you’re not actually doing anything but looking at your wallpaper and maybe a mess of icons if you’re not a minimalist like me.  😉  I delved a little farther into this notion and I realized that it was time for me to try a keyboard driven window manager.  It was time to step away from the mouse…

The first one I tried was Xmonad.  It’s a tiling window manager which automatically places applications on your screen in the most efficient layout.  The general idea is to get away from having to move, place or resize windows.  Instead, the first application window is mostly full screen.  There are no window widgets to close/minimize/maximize because those concepts don’t exist in this environment.  When you open a second application window, Xmonad splits the screen in half with the first app on the top and the second on the bottom half.  You can then switch into two other modes: side by side, and full screen where you cycle between apps with a key combo.

There are also a default of nine workspaces (kind of like virtual desktops).  So it’s easy to group applications together.  I would use space 1 for my web mail session at work.  Space 2 for another browser with work related links in it.  Space three for some terminal windows for the various shell sessions to *nix and VMS boxes.  Space four, for a Windows remote desktop session to a virtual machine.  Space seven, for a text editor with my latest task list in it.  And finally space nine for a remote NX session (like remote desktop, but for Linux) to my app server at home via OpenVPN.  The other ones I skipped I’d throw various apps onto and they tend to be transient.

Spending about four or five months with it was interesting.  But I wasn’t sure if it really made that much of a difference.  Sometimes the tiling paradigm just didn’t work.  The split screen whether vertical or horizontal didn’t provide enough space for either app and using them in full screen mode and cycling between them wasn’t very efficient.  So when I just switched to Ubuntu Desktop from Gentoo on my workstation this week, I went back to Gnome with Metacity.  Only to discover that the keyboard driven window manager fans were right.  It’s a massive pain in the rear to have to move, place and resize windows all the time.  Even with multiple virtual desktops!  I could actually feel the impact on my workflow efficiency and working with Gnome, Compiz-Fusion or Windows just feels too slow.

So I promptly installed Xmonad as well as wmii.  As soon as I tried wmii, I was in heaven.  The key combos are similar to Xmonad so not much time to adapt.  Plus they switched from the multiple virtual desktop approach to tags for application windows.  Which is much more powerful.  The tags appear to be the same as virtual desktops in that there are some defaults (0 through 9) which make it look like you just have ten virtual desktops to move between.  But the difference is that you can use more than one tag on an application window.  This then allows you to have a single application grouped with other applications under other tags so it follows you.  Even better is that if you switch an app to floating mode (which is similar to what other standard GUIs do) under one tag, that only applies there.  When you switch to another tag the application will change to conform to however it’s been configured for that other tag.  So I’ve noticed a definite difference in using wmii and my ability to save time during the day as I work through being able to forget about bothering with window placement and resizing unless I want to do it.  Note that I haven’t yet tried Awesome or Ratpoison which also allow you to ditch the mouse.  And as a second note, I’ll point out that some applications still demand a mouse, so you can’t really always keep your hands on the home keys.  But wmii and Xmonad are definitely the way to go for serious work.

On that last point, I’ll note that I use Compiz-Fusion on the media center at home, and standard Gnome on a few other machines.  Which is really the whole reason for this blog entry.  What I’ve discovered is that you can get a lot more done with a computer if you have the right UI for the job.  At work, where I can have anywhere from 15-30 windows open at a time, and I need to be able to move between them quickly or group them in various ways, wmii is a clear win.  But, on the laptop that I share with my family, I need something that isn’t as byzantine, so standard Gnome or Compiz-Fusion is the best choice.  When I’m working on music or editing video, I need maximal screen space combined with the occasionaly need to resize a window, so wmii it is again.

As you can see, there is no one approach that works well for all tasks, but you don’t realize that until you try all the options.  So if you’re on the fence and curious about different UI approaches, go ahead and explore.  What you learn will be worth it.  Just make sure you give yourself enough time to really figure out how you feel about the environment.  For me, that’s a minimum of six months.  Taking the tiime and honestly giving it your best effort might surpris you.  I remember when I first saw tiling window managers about ten years ago and wondered, “why would anyone want that”?  Now I know.


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